ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

ADHD is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Short attention span, easy distractibility, difficulty in controlling impulsivity and hyperactivity are the distinguishing features of ADHD. Children with ADHD have difficulties in school, at home and other places. ADHD may cause negative effects on learning and behaviour.
ADHD and Specific Learning Disability often coexist. 40% of children with Learning Disability have ADHD and vice-versa. Co-occurrence makes both conditions more complicated.



  • Difficulty in sustaining attention
  • Failure to pay close attention to details
  • Difficulty in organising tasks and activities
  • Excessive motor activity
  • Fidgets with hands or feet
  • Easily distracted
  • Can’t wait for turn
  • Frequent shifts from one uncompleted activity to another
  • May not able to concentrate on lessons and to finish class/homework
  • When sit for homework usually asks for water/ food or to go to toilet
  • Makes careless mistakes
  • Gets in trouble because he/she cant “stop and think” before acting
  • Difficulty in remaining still
  • Restless


There are three presentations (subtypes) of ADHD.

  • Inattentive
  • Hyperactive-impulsive
  • Combined inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive

Characteristics of ADHD inattentive presentation:-

  • Difficulty to organize tasks
  • Difficulty to pay attention to close details
  • Difficulty to sustain attention and to complete the tasks
  • Difficulty to stay focused and to follow conversations and instructions

Characteristics of ADHD hyperactive-impulsive presentation: -

  • Restlessness
  • Difficulty in remaining still
  • Fidgets with hands or legs
  • Talks a lot
  • A smaller child may be continually jumping, running or climbing
  • Difficulty in waiting for their turn

ADHD combined inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive presentation:-

ADHD combined inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive presentation has symptoms from both of the above presentations.


A comprehensive approach is necessary to help the children with ADHD to develop proper academic and social behaviours. The following approaches are important in the overall management of behavioural and learning problems due to ADHD.

  • Counselling and supportive psychotherapy
  • Behaviour Management at school and at home
  • Classroom intervention
  • Parental education and counselling
  • Training to enhance the Learning Skills
  • Medication

Preparing a child with ADHD for adolescence and adulthood therefore need a combined approach. Anyway guiding the child to a successful adulthood is important.