LEARNING DISABILITY - Different terms to denote difficulty in different areas

Terms in the jargon of LD
# Terms Areas of Difficulty Skill Deficits Manifestation of Problems
1 Dyslexia Reading
  • Word Recognition
  • Reading Fluency
  • Spelling
Difficulty with letters, slow in reading, Not able to read and spell words accurately
2 Dysgraphia Writing
  • Physical work of writing
  • Composition of writing
Poor handwriting, Slow in writing, Difficulty in organising ideas
3 Dyscalculia Maths
  • Numbers
  • Arithmetic Concepts
  • Mathematical Reasoning
Poor arithmetic skills, Difficulty with time and money calculations, Poor Mental maths, Difficulty solving statement problems
4 Developmental Coordination Disorder-DCD (Dyspraxia) Fine Motor Skills
  • Coordination
  • Clumsiness
Trouble using tools, frequent falling and bumping, Writing difficulty, Poor skills in drawing and craft, Difficulty in physical and play activities
5 Mixed Disorder Of Scholastic Skills


  • Reading
  • Spelling & Writing
  • Maths
Impairment in all academic skills together, unable or slow in reading, Spelling and writing difficulty, Poor maths skills
6 Language Disorder (Dysphasia) Spoken and Written Language
  • Reception/ Expression of language
  • Reading Comprehension
Problems in understanding spoken  language, Poor reading comprehension, Difficulty in oral and written expression
7 Auditory Processing Disorder Processing  Speech
  • Language Development
Mispronunciation, Poor Reading and Spelling Skills, Delay in language development,  Fails to understand what is said to them
8 Visual Processing Disorder Processing Visual Information
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Maths
Reading and spelling difficulty, Difficulty with similar looking letters, reversing and mirror errors, difficulty in copying, difficulty with pictures
9 Social Skills Deficits Social Competency
  • Social Skills
  • Emotion
  • Language
  • Motor Skills

Fails to understand and master social conventions, play with younger or older children or remain as loners,

Anger and Emotional problems
10 Nonverbal Learning Disorder Processing nonverbal information
  • Non verbal skills
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Maths reasoning
  • Motor Skills
Poor motor skills, Poor  oral and reading comprehension, Poor mathematical reasoning, Difficulty in nonverbal cues in communication
11 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) Attention and activity levels
  • Concentration
  • Hyperactivity and Impulsivity
Restless, Distractibility, inattentive, can’t focus, can’t continue in one task for enough time,

The skill development in these areas is inter-related and usually children with learning disability exhibit problems in different areas in varying degrees of severity. Due to the overlapping nature of difficulty in different areas of academic skills Specific Learning Disorder is presently considered as a single disorder which stands for the overall difficulty experienced in the academic domain. Problems related with motor coordination are termed as Developmental Coordination Disorder. Developmental problems related with language skills come under Language Disorders. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder refers to the difficulty in keeping attention and problems in activity level.